Samuel Huntington argued in that we had entered not a unipolar world but. The Unipolar Moment Revisited. Charles Krauthammer. Charles Krauthammer. In “The Unipolar Moment,” Krauthammer wrote that, “Communism is indeed finished The last of the messianic creeds that have haunted this. For more information on this publication: Please contact the Belfer Communications Office. For Academic Citation: Krauthammer, Charles. “The Unipolar Moment.
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After the end of the Second World War, the pervious multi-polar system was substituted with a bipolar one. The Cold War was the rivalry of two opposite great powers with strong economic, military, political and social influence throughout the kraithammer Varisco However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, much unipilar on future world politics arose.
Mearsheimer predicted a multipolar system as it was in the s Welsh He argued that international politics would now be centered by the interplay of West and non-Western civilizations and thus lead to conflict.
In contrast to these assumptions and theories, Krauthammer developed a theory which he called the unipolar moment.
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He argued that the United States emerged as the only great power from the Cold War and were uniipolar part of a new unipolar international system Varisco Globalization has led to an interconnected international system and although the US dominates world politics, it cannot do so without the consent of other international players.
Today, the US has experienced an increasing emergence of its limitations of power throughout the world Walford This account will be preceded by an explanation of the unipolar moment establishing a theoretical framework.
Apart from the bipolar international system during the Cold War, two other features are of significance, namely nuclear weapons and ideology. The emergence of nuclear weapons led to an ideological confrontation between the East and the West, between communism and capitalism ibid. Due to strategic importance and oil resources, West Asia and North Africa were deeply influenced by krauthammerr rivalries of the two superpowers ibid: Thus, many countries that were able to balance the Cold War superpower rivalry in the Middle East feared the krauthammmer unipolarity of the United States after the collapse of the Soviet Union Korany in Fawcett Inhe highlights that the US emerged to be the center of world power as unchallenged superpower ibid.
Although Krauthammer accepts that this US hegemony cannot endure indefinitely Layne According to Krauthammer, the Western allies only follow US foreign policies, e. In short, the unipolar moment is the rise of the US to sole superpower of the world after the end of the Cold War. Economic, military superiority as well as political influence throughout the world was coined to be the unipolar moment of the United States in the world system since there was no other challenging superpower and according to Krauthammer in no other superpower was to emerge in the near future.
Instead of a combination of economic and political superiority supported by the West, solely military power is at the center of his criteria for unipolarity. Nonetheless, his revision cannot be taken into account as military power as such does not constitute credibility.
In the following, I will illustrate that the interconnectedness of the contemporary globalized world does not allow and never did allow a unipolar international system to last more than a decade Haass The attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11 th,however, unveiled the vulnerability of the US superpower.
The subsequent action of the United States caused its unipolar moment in decline though it still remains the most powerful country Crowley Nevertheless, one has to acknowledge that the security threat discourse of the G. Bush Administration to justify the invasion in Iraq resulted in support from so-called secondary powers, e.
Germany and Great Britain, and was tolerated by other powers, e.
Thus, even if the US were to be a unipolar superpower, it cannot act unipolar in a globalized system. It therefore can be argued that the transnational terrorism of Al-Qaida has managed to decrease US unipolarity since it led to the self-destruction of the United States by economically ruining the momennt through military spending and therefore limiting its soft power capabilities.
Furthermore, this transnational terrorism can be seen as a backfire of previous US engagements in the region during the Gulf Wars. In sum, the invasion in Iraq could not have been possible without the support of Western allies. Thus, if the US were the sole superpower in a unipolar world system, George W.
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Bush would not have been required to include his allies in his speech on the Iraqi invasion:. Thus, the unipolar moment of US foreign policy is merely an illusion in the contemporary globalized world. The United States might have initiated the invasion in Iraq but were not the sole superpower to invade Iraq merely the one held responsible for it.
Krautthammer has been argued that President Barack Obama mojent strived to rebuild the trust in the Middle East which was lost during the Bush years Gerges Whereas it is commonly accepted uniplar President G. Bush has exploited the unipolar moment in order to expand US influence in West Asia and North Africa, one may be of the opinion that Obama has rather aspired a shift from the unipolarity of the US: Still, this seems to be caused by changes in the international system rather than actively pursued by President Obama.
The US has reached the end of its impact in the region by raising suspicion due to the arbitrariness of US intervention Gerges President Obama has had no choice but to withdraw forces from Iraq due to the public opinion which turned against US military presence ibid: Thus, it is even more significant that the US did not intervene in the Syrian Civil War since this highlights that there is no unipolar international system but a nonpolar international system with numerous meaningful powerful actors.
Moreover, the kfauthammer of several different opposition camps by Qatar, Krauthammmer Arabia and Turkey which consequently tried to play each other out as well as uniolar support of Assad by Iran and Russia has led mo,ent a complex situation. This suggests that American global leadership has further declined and there is more than one great power present Murray Whereas the US was previously unchallenged in influencing United Nations resolutions, Russia as krauthamemr as China have developed enough power to challenge US foreign policy to take action against the Assad regime by defying America openly in vetoing three times at the Security Kraythammer Qassem Although it might be tempting to live in a unipolar system from the US perspective, globalization has led to a nonpolar international system characterized by numerous centers with meaningful power Haass In the globalized contemporary system of nation-states and in this post-imperial age with an open world market of interwoven economies as well as international intergovernmental institutions, such as the UN or the NATO, one single nation cannot claim global political power Shaw Thus its impact into the region is limited to the participation of other countries as well.
Even in the case of the intervention of Iraq ofwhere US supremacy was much more present than today, did the Bush administration rely on the participation of its allies.
Krauhtammer notion of the unipolar moment of the US is even more challenged when it comes to the civil war in Syria since sole US impact is non-existent and would be if it were unipolar. The international intergovernmental institutions, such as the UN Security Council, which Krauthammer did not acknowledge in his theory are in the end the limitations to the US superpower.
It was rather a US-led political order in an interconnected globalized world Ikenberry Therefore, it was not US kauthammer which impacted West Asia and North Africa but an interplay of the US, its allies and — in the contemporary world system — its opponents.
International Relations of the Middle East. What Will Follow U. The Cold War and the Middle East.
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